Le système d’exploitation, les informations essentielles

Le système d’exploitation, les informations essentielles

système d’exploitation

Dans le langage informatique, le système d’exploitation est un ensemble de programmes. Il pilote l’usage des ressources d’un ordinateur par des logiciels applicatifs. L’OS (Operating System) accueille les demandes d’utilisation des moyens de stockage des mémoires, de calcul du processeur, de communication de la part des logiciels applicatifs. Il gère et évite les interférences entre les logiciels.

Le système d’exploitation: intermédiaire entre les logiciels d’application et le matériel

Le système d’exploitation est un logiciel. C’est le second et principal programme qu’on exécute lors de la mise en marche d’un ordinateur. Le premier c’est le programme d’amorçage (bootloader). L’OS offre maints services qui facilitent la création de logiciels applicatifs. Il sert de relai entre ces logiciels et le matériel informatique. Un système d’exploitation procure simplicité, productivité, capacité. Ce qui permet d’insérer des fonctions nouvelles et du nouveau matériel sans douter des logiciels.

Les systèmes d’exploitation existants

Il existe une multitude de systèmes d’exploitation. Ils sont généralement livrés avec l’appareil informatique. C’est le cas de Windows, Mac OS, Irix, Symbian OS, GNU/Linux et Android. Les fonctionnalités offertes sont différentes d’un système à un autre. Elles dépendent de de l’utilisation de la mémoire centrale ou des périphériques, la manipulation des systèmes de fichiers, la communication ou la détection/gestion d’erreurs.

Fonctionnalités des OS

La fonction principale du système d’exploitation est de supprimer les différences entre les architectures informatiques. Aussi, il organise l’usage des ressources rationnellement. Voici l’explication.

  • Utilisation des périphériques :

Chaque périphérique a ses propres instructions. L’OS permet au programmeur de manipuler le périphérique par de simples demandes de lecture ou d’écriture. Ainsi on évite de perdre du temps sur la traduction des opérations en instructions propres au périphérique.

  • Accès aux fichiers :

L’OS tient compte du format propre de chaque support qui sert de stockage aux fichiers. Il procure des dispositifs de sécurité qui permettent de contrôler quel utilisateur peut manipuler quel fichier.

  • Accès aux ressources :

Le système d’exploitation protège les ressources contre des utilisateurs non autorisés. Il solutionne les conflits quand deux utilisateurs demandent la même ressource en simultané.

  • Détection et récupération en cas d’erreurs :

Si un erreur matérielle ou logiciel survient, l’OS traite celui-ci et limite l’impact sur le système informatique. Il peut essayer de reprendre l’opération, arrêter l’exécution du programme fautif ou signaler le problème à l’utilisateur.

  • Contrôle :

Un système d’exploitation peut tenir des statistiques d’utilisation des ressources, surveiller la performance et les temps de réponse. Il peut également tenir des statistiques d’utilisation des ressources, surveiller la performance et les temps de réponse.

Les utilisateurs et les programmeurs peuvent ainsi demander des services au système d’exploitation par son interface de programmation, ses commandes ou son interface graphique.

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